The computer has been passed many generations before coming up to the state of computer, laptop, desktop and notebook form. At first initial phase, Blaise Pascal gave the birth of a mechanical calculator(counting device) in 1642 AD and then in around 1830 AD, Charles’s Babbage developed “difference engine” and ” Analytical engine”. After that many evolutions happened, such as the use of vacuum tube, transistor, integrated circuits etc. This step up in technology is called generations of computer. The generation of a computer has been categorized into first, second, third, fourth and fifth generations based on the key evolutions(vacuum tube, transistor, IC) from past time to recent time.
Third generation computers:
All the computers used in the time slots between the mid-1960s to 1970s are third generation computer. some examples of the third generation of computer are: IBM/370 Series, CDC7600, PDP11, STAR-100 etc. The main features of the third generation computer are as follows:
- They used ICs(integrated circuits) for CPU components.
- In the beginning, third generation computers used magnetic core memory, but later on, semiconductor memories (RAMs and ROMs) were used.
- Semiconductor memories were LSI(large scale of integration) chips.
- Magnetic disks and magnetic tapes were used as secondary memories.
- A new advanced memory called cache memory was introduced and incorporated in third generation computer.
- The concept of virtual memory was introduced.
- Microprogramming, parallel processing, multiprocessing, multiprogramming and multi-user system were introduced.
- Advanced high-level language such as c was developed for computer programming.
- They were more powerful than second-generation computers.
- They were smaller than second generation computers
- They consumed less power and produced less amount of heat than second-generation computers.
- The example of third generation computers is IBM/370 Series, CDC7600, PDP11, STAR-100 etc.
difference between the third generation and fourth generation computers:
|Third generation computer||Fourth generation computer|
They used ICs(integrated circuits) for CPU components.
They used ULSI(ultra large scale of integration) chips for CPU, memory and other supporting chips.
Magnetic disks and magnetic tapes were used as secondary memories.
Magnetic disks(such as a hard disk), optical disks(such as CDROM, CDRW, DVD etc. ) are used as secondary memory.
Advanced high level language such as c was developed for computer programming.
Procedure-oriented and object-oriented programming languages were developed.
|4||They consume more power then fourth generation computer||Power consumption is very less|
|5||They are less powerful then fourth generation computer||They are more powerful|
|6||They were comparatively larger computers||Size comparatively smaller|
The example of third generation computers are: IBM/370 Series, CDC7600, PDP11, STAR-100 etc.
eg: power pc, UltraSpark and all modern pcs.