The computer has been passed many generations before coming up to the state of computer, laptop, desktop and notebook form. At first initial phase, Blaise Pascal gave the birth of a mechanical calculator(counting device) in 1642 AD and then in around 1830 AD, Charles’s Babbage developed “difference engine” and ” Analytical engine”. After that many evolutions happened, such as the use of vacuum tube, transistor, integrated circuits etc. This step up in technology is called generations of computer. The generation of a computer has been categorized into first, second, third, fourth and fifth generations based on the key evolutions(vacuum tube, transistor, IC) from past time to recent time.
Second generation computers:
The computers used in the time slot between the mid 1950s and mid-1960s are known as the second-generation computer.example of the second generation of computers are IBM1620, IBM 7090, CDC1604 etc. The important features of second generation computers are as follows.
- They used a transistor as the CPU component.
- They used ferrite cores for main memory.
- Magnetic tapes and magnetic tapes were used as secondary memory.
- They used high-level languages such as FORTRAN, COBOL and ALGOL for programming.
- They were smaller than the first-generation computer.
- They were faster than the first generation of computer.
- Input/output processor was introduced to control the input and output operations.
- They consumed less power and produce less amount of heat.
- They were more reliable than the first generation computer
- eg: IBM1620, IBM 7090, CDC1604 etc.
Difference between first generation computers and second generation computers.
|first generation computer||second generation computer|
|1||They used vacuum tubes as CPU component.||They used a transistor as the CPU component.|
They used electrostatic memory as main memory.
|They used ferrite cores for main memory.|
Magnetic tapes and magnetic drums were used as secondary memory.
Magnetic tapes and magnetic tapes were used as secondary memory.
The first generation program used assembly language for programming.
|They used high level languages such as FORTAN,COBOL and ALGOL for programming.|
The size of the computer was too bulky.
|They were smaller than the first-generation computer.|
|6||They were slower than the second generation of computer.||They were faster than the first generation of computer.|
Power consumption of these computers was very high.
|They consumed less power and produce less amount of heat.|
|8||These computers needed regular maintenance.||They were more reliable than the first generation computer|
|9||eg: IBM 701, IBM704, EDVAC etc.||eg: IBM1620, IBM 7090, CDC1604 etc.|