The computer has been passed many generations before coming up to the state of computer, laptop, desktop and notebook form. At first initial phase, Blaise Pascal gave the birth of a mechanical calculator(counting device) in 1642 AD and then in around 1830 AD, Charles’s Babbage developed “difference engine” and ” Analytical engine”. After that many evolutions happened, such as the use of vacuum tube, transistor, integrated circuits etc. This step up in technology is called generations of computer. The generation of a computer has been categorized into first, second, third, fourth and fifth generations based on the key evolutions(vacuum tube, transistor, IC) from past time to recent time.
first generation of computers:
The computers used in the time slot mid-1940s to mid-1950s are known as first generation computer. some example are: IBM 701, IBM704, EDVAC etc. The important features of the first generation computers are as follows:
- They used electronic valves(vacuum tubes as CPU components.
- They stored the information in the form of propagating sound waves.
- The vacuum tubes were costly and therefore it was not used as main memory. Electrostatic memories were used in the first generation computers.
- Magnetic tapes and magnetic drums were used as secondary memory.
- Almost 18000 vacuum tubes were used in a computer.
- The size of the computer was too bulky.
- The first generation program used assembly language for programming.
- Power consumption of these computers was very high.
- They emitted large amount of heat, therefore required proper air conditioning.
- These computers needed regular maintenance.
- Some examples of the first generation computers are: IBM 701, IBM704, EDVAC etc.
difference between first generation computers and second generation computers.
|first generation computer||second generation computer|
|1||They used vacuum tubes as CPU component.||They used a transistor as the CPU component.|
They used electrostatic memory as main memory.
|They used ferrite cores for main memory.|
Magnetic tapes and magnetic drums were used as secondary memory.
Magnetic tapes and magnetic tapes were used as secondary memory.
The first generation program used assembly language for programming.
|They used high level languages such as FORTAN,COBOL and ALGOL for programming.|
The size of the computer was too bulky.
|They were smaller than the first-generation computer.|
|6||They were slower than the second generation of computer.||They were faster than the first generation of computer.|
Power consumption of these computers was very high.
|They consumed less power and produce less amount of heat.|
|8||These computers needed regular maintenance.||They were more reliable than the first generation computer|
|9||eg: IBM 701, IBM704, EDVAC etc.||eg: IBM1620, IBM 7090, CDC1604 etc.|